After each turn, you will get older. The older you are, the more chance you have of dying. During the game you will pass through the following stages of health: Excellent, Good, Bad, dead.
You can prolong your life expectancy using a health potion. This potion appears in the Management tab when your health is Excellent.
If you are absent from the game for a long time, your in-game character will die. Once your capital has a low population, your kingdom will be considered destroyed and you will lose the game.
Finally, if your health level is Bad, you can buy a vial of poison in order to die and quickly start a new game.
When you die, your accomplishments will be saved and can then be viewed in the Pantheon.
You can then choose a to join another kingdom and start a new game, with a new capital, new neighbours and another chance at becoming an Emperor.